Ireland, Poor Law Union Removals From England, 1859-1860
Following the Act of Settlement in 1662, parishes in the United Kingdom were obliged to help those who were ‘legally settled'. If they could not fulfil the required criteria, they could be removed by force and sent to their parish of legal settlement.
Removal Orders could be issued if the person or family were deemed to have no right to settlement in the parish. Removal Orders record the names of the poor persons involved, the parish from which they were removed and the parish to which they were to be removed. Removal Orders sometimes list all the children in the family and give their ages.
Amongst those who were affected by removal were thousands of Irish applicants in England. If, upon examination, it was found that they had no right of settlement, they could be deported from the nearest port back to Ireland, at the time part of the United Kingdom. Often, families were placed on boats to the port nearest their home parish, but they still may have had a journey of many miles after disembarking. They would have had to pay their own way as the English parish would only pay enough for them to get to Ireland, not for the entire journey back to their original home parish.
NB: I presume that these removal lists were originally sourced from the House of Commons Parliamentary Papers (http://parlipapers.proquest.com/parlipapers) collection, which is freely accessible via subscribing libraries across the UK. It should be noted that there are many such lists from the 1860s and 1870s in the archive, not just from England, but from Scotland and Wales also. You will find additional lists freely available on the Raymond's County Down website at http://countydown.x10.mx/html/index2.htm, as follows:
- Return of all poor persons, removed from Scotland to Ireland 1867/1869
- Return of all poor persons removed from England & Wales to Ireland 1867/1869
- Return of poor persons, England & Wales since 1st Jan. 1875
- Return of poor from Scotland to Ireland, 1875/76/77/78
Ireland, School Masters and Mistresses, 1826
The Irish Education Inquiry published its second report in the year 1826, in Dublin, Ireland and aimed to provide a picture of the state of education in Ireland at the time. The stated goal of the commission was "To inquire into the nature and extent of the instruction afforded by the several institutions established for the purpose of education and maintained either in whole or in part from the public funds; to inquire also into the state of the diocesan and district Schools, and the Nature of the Instruction there given; for ascertaining whether any and what regulations may be fit to be established with respect to the Parochial Schools, and for reporting as to the Measures which can be adopted for extending generally to all classes of the People the benefits of Education." The report's findings were presented to the UK Parliament as Ireland was, as that time, part of the United Kingdom.
The report also included the names of Masters and Mistresses employed in schools at that time.
What can be found in the records?
For each Master or Mistress found within the report, you may be able to find (where available):
The County in which they taught
The Parish in which they taught
The location of the school in which they were employed
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